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Transistors are the basic electronic component widely used in the circuit board for amplification and switching purposes, whereas power transistors are the devices that control the turn on and turn of the characteristics. These switching devices are operated in the saturation region which results in low on state voltage drop. Modern transistors have high switching speed than that of thyristors and widely used in DC to DC and DC to AC converter. Though, their voltage and current ratings are lower than thyristors thus used in low to medium power applications.
Power transistor is classified into four types which include Insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), Static Induction transistors (SITs), and Metal-oxide semiconductor filed-effect transistors (mosfets), bipolar junction transistors (BJTs).
Each type has particular functionality which is embed to certain circuit as required. Bipolar junction transistors has high switching frequencies since their turn on and turn off time is low. Moreover, its turn on losses are low and do not require commutation circuits. Insulated gate bipolar transistor has high input impedance and low driving power. Moreover it can be easily controlled in high voltage and high current applications.
Another type we have is Mosfet having advantage which requires very little current to turn on whether delivering a very high current to the load. These can be seen in microprocessors, also used for implementing logic gates and data storage. Radio systems also use Mosfets as oscillators and mixers to convert frequencies and also used in audio power frequency power amplifiers, sound reinforcement, home and automobile sound systems.